Floating Solar (PV) Systems: why they are taking off
Floating Solar (PV) Systems: why they are taking off
5 August 2015 

Floating Solar (PV) Systems: why they are taking off

With nearly 3 quarters of our planet covered with water, and more and more people living and feeding from the increasingly scarcer lands, isn’t it a brilliant idea to start using our water surfaces for clean power generation?

Makes perfect sense, right?

With only a handful of players currently focusing on the market of floating solar systems, it seems there’s more to it than you might think.

In this article we explore the countries where floating solar is taking off, the main players and their different technologies as well as the advantages and implications of installing solar modules on the water surface.

What are the main countries where floating solar systems are installed?

Yossi Fisher, CEO of Solaris Synergy, a pioneer in floating solar systems comments:

“The Floating PV market is a new growing market​. There are many places around the world that do not have available land for PV installations, mainly islands such as Japan, Singapore, Korea, Philippines and ​many others.

In general the cost of water surface is much lower than the cost of land.

Today there is already a demand for Floating PV in Japan, USA, Korea, Australia, Brasil, India and others. This demand is expected to increase and will spread all over the world”.


What are the ideal places for floating solar systems to be installed?

We’ve read about floating solar systems being installed at wineries, fish farms, wastewater treatment plants and so on..

Yossi Fisher continues:

“An ideal match are the water utility companies that are usually heavy electricity consumers that do not have land but have many water reservoirs.“

Also there’s a good synergy with Hydro-dams since the infrastructure, such as electrical grid, teams, roads, is already in place.

Water reservoirs - Ideal locations for floating solar systems

Water reservoirs – Ideal locations for floating solar systems


Floating solar systems vs. solar systems installed on land – which system produces more power?

Solar PV systems installed on the water surface benefit from a significant lower ambient temperature due to the evaporative cooling effect of water. The aluminum frames certainly conduct the cooler temperature from the water as well, bringing down the overall temperature of the modules.

However the actual performance advantage compared to ground mounted installations seems to vary due to lots of variables.

We highly doubt the comments made by company Infratech Industries claiming yields of up to 3 times that of a traditional fixed solar system are possible (Source).

Perhaps a more realistic scenario comes from research done by the Korea Water Resources Corporation:

A study conducted by Korea Water Resources Corporation has shown that floating PV systems can outperform standard, land installed PV systems by 11% (!).

THAT IS a significant difference..

During this comparison analysis, the performance of 3 installations, sized 2.4kW, 100kW and 500kW, was measured. Each system had the equivalent power installed on land, as well as on the water.

Comparison study floating solar systems by Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)

Another study to keep an eye on..

The government of Singapore is undertaking the largest side-by-side comparison study of floating pv systems, which is managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS).

“This SGD11 million project will be held in two phases over a period of 4 years, and in phase one, starting in 2015, will deploy eight floating PV systems, each with a capacity of around 100 kWp. Phase Two, which commence after the PV systems of Phase One have been comparatively tested for several months, will see an expansion by another 2-3 MWp in size. More details can be found on the SERIS website http://www.solar-repository.sg/” (Source)


How about waves and heavy winds?

Floating solar systems will certainly move by waves and heavy winds. The floating PV system needs to be able to withstand these forces of nature.

How do floating solar systems handle waves and heavy winds?

How do floating solar systems handle waves and heavy winds?

Ciel & Terre’s floating solar technology called Hydrelio© is tested by ONERA (the French aerospace lab) to withstand winds up to 190km/h (118mp/h).

Solaris Synergy’s cable-based structure is able to withstand hurricane level winds as well. Question is perhaps.. what kind of hurricane? 🙂

Another float or raft membrane developed by Infratech Industries Inc is able to withstand up to 10 meters in water level differential and 2 meter peak and trough waves.

How about floating solar systems on salt water / open sea?

With over three-quarters of our planet covered in water, a logical question step would be the deployment of floating solar energy systems on open sea. Is this already possible?

Solaris Synergy comments:

Our floating system can stand waves up to 2 meters, and can be installed in lagoons or bays. 

The problem today with salty water is that the PV modules manufacturers are not ready yet to give warranty for salty water installations. 

If the PV module manufacturers are not ready yet to offer decent warranties on modules installed at sea, we may need  ‘military grade‘ modules for ocean projects, or limit the installation of floating solar system to sweet water lakes for the moment.

What are the effects of salty water on solar modules?

It’s known that Salt Mist Corrosion can affect the lifetime of solar modules that are installed near a coast line.

Manufacturers nowadays offer a special certification too prove that they can produce modules that can withstand salt mist corrosion according to specific standards. This Salt Mist Corrosion standard is the IEC 61701.

As you know from our previous article on the pitfalls and difficulties concerning solar module warranties, the details of a warranty vary greatly and are easily void if modules are not handled and installed as per warranty conditions.

Anything installed at sea needs to be corrosion-proof and apparently most PV manufacturers of standard solar modules are not confident yet to offer full warranties on modules installed at sea.

In fact most solar module warranty policies exclude modules ‘exposed to corrosion’.

Here’s an example quote from Trina Solar’s warranty policy: 

…”Limited Warranty” does not apply to any Products which have been subjected to extreme environmental conditions or exposure to corrosion, oxidation

What are the main players of floating solar systems in the market?

  1. Solaris Synergy

Solaris Synergy’s proprietary technology is different from most rigid contiguous floating platform solutions on the market. Its floating equipment has already reached a cost equivalent to ground mounted PV systems.

Solaris Synergy Floating Solar System

Solaris Synergy – Floating Solar (PV) System

The company’s proprietary ‘Grid-Based Solaris Synergy system’ “…enables PV modules to float independently of each other while maintaining a predefined geometrical configuration by means of a proprietary system of tensed cables connected in a spider-web like grid and supported by a rigid floating rim.

Imagine a structure similar to a tennis racquet, where the floating rigid rim is the frame of the racquet, and the grid of tensed cables are the strings of the racquet running lengthwise and width wise. In the squares formed by the criss-crossing strings – the solar modules are placed and are loosely held to the corners of the squares with cables”.


Grid Based – Solaris Synergy System

Visit Solaris Synergy’s website: http://www.solaris-synergy.com/


  1. Ciel et Terre

Ciel et Terre’s HYDRELIO© floating solar system components consists of patented modular floats that are known for their ease of installation. The system can be put together without any tools.

Ciel et Terre - Floats

Ciel et Terre – Floats (Source: Ciel et Terre)

Interesting FAQ about materials used by Ciel et Terre: http://www.ciel-et-terre.net/faq/

Ciel et Terre floating solar modules at Intersolar Munich 2015

Ciel et Terre floating solar modules at Intersolar Munich 2015

Ciel et Terre floating solar modules at Intersolar Munich 2015

Ciel et Terre floating solar modules at Intersolar Munich 2015

Visit Ciel et Terre’s website http://www.ciel-et-terre.net/


  1. Kyocera

The past years Kyocera TCL Solar has been rolling out large scale PV systems in Japan. Due to the lack of space, and the abundance of unused water surface, the company has been constructing several floating solar PV systems.

The latest and third floating solar system, a 2.3MW installation, was constructed in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The floating structure is supplied by Ciel et Terre. At the moment the largest floating solar system in the world!

Kyocera 2.3MW Floating Solar Power Plant in Kasai City

Kyocera 2.3MW Floating Solar Power Plant in Kasai City


Kyocera worlds largest floating solar plant in Japan

Kyocera worlds largest floating solar plant in Japan

The company is currently working on a new giant 13.4MW installation, which will be floating on a dam reservoir in Chiba Prefecture.
Other companies doing work with floating solar systems are Infratech Industries Inc and Sunengy (floating CPV),

What are the components / materials used for floating solar systems?

A typical floating solar energy (PV) system consists of the following components:

  1. A floating system, consisting of either a Pontoon or separate Floats: 
    1. Pontoon -> a pontoon is flotation device with buoyancy sufficient to float itself as well as a heavy load. 
    2. Floats -> often multiple plastic floats are combined, forming a giant pontoon. The floats are typically made of HDPE (high density poly-ethylene), know for its tensile strengthUV and corrosion resistance. One important advantage of floats made of HDPE is that these can be used in drinking water reservoirs. HDPE is commonly used for the fabrication of milk bottles, water pipes, fuel tanks and so on. HDPE can be recycled as well.
  2. Mooring system, a mooring system usually refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, wharfs, jetties, piers, anchor buoys, and mooring buoys. In the case of a floating solar system, the mooring system keeps the panels in the same position and prevents them from turning or floating away. The installation of a mooring system can be a challenge and expensive in deep water. Not all companies are using a mooring system. For instance Israeli company Solaris Synergy does not use a mooring system, and uses their patented grid-based system which secures the floating solar modules as well.
  3. Solar panels, right now standard solar modules are used for the floating solar systems we’ve seen installed so far. However once more projects will be installed on salty water surfaces, we expect that specially fabricated modules will be required to resist the long term salt mist exposure. Nearly any metal will corrode over time and therefore there are alternatives to standard aluminum frames and mounts, such as the following polymer made frame from Suntech Power, which does not corrode at all:

    Suntech carbon frame

    Suntech polymer non-corrosive frame

  4. Cables. Electricity is drawn from the solar array and transported to the land. At land the power can be fed to the grid, or stored in batteries. The projects we’ve informed with so far did not have cables pulled under water, but kept wiring above water. Even though no electrical components are under water, properly rated cables and waterproof IP67 junction boxes are important with floating solar projects. Other electrical components such as inverters and batteries remain ’nice and dry’ on the land..


The future of floating solar systems?

One nicely thought out concept that we like to highlight here is the solar-powered Smart Floating Farms (SFF) concept developed by Forward Thinking Architecture.

The concept of an autonomous floating farm was developed as a solution for our future food shortage: with estimated 9 billion mouths to feed by 2050 and climate change likely cutting a quarter of crop yields, we’ll need new, innovative ways to increase food supplies.

Floating solar powered farm concept by Forward Thinking Architecture

Floating solar powered farm concept by Forward Thinking Architecture

 The farm is built with a modular-expandable Multi Layer Floating Farming system, and is designed to operate at sea. The Hydroponics, Aquaponics, LED lighting system and desalination equipment will all be solar powered.
Javier F. Ponce, CEO of Forward Thinking Architecture comments:

“There are many areas/dense cities worldwide that can benefit from our Smart Floating Farms (SFF), specifically the countries with land scarcity and massive import related problems and limited water resources.

For example, the project could perfectly fit in places like Singapore or the Arabian Peninsula countries, and many other countries..”

SINOVOLTAICS: Do you consider building a prototype?

“Yes, it is actually becoming more and more real with time and our progress. We will be glad to comment more when the appropriate time comes.”



Do you have experience with floating solar (PV) systems or a working on a water surface PV system? We want to hear from you, please comment or mail us!

About the author
Dricus is Managing Director at Sinovoltaics Group “, a solar technology company specialized in the Supply Chain Management and De-Risking of utility scale solar farms. Dricus is based in Hong Kong and has been working in the PV industry in China for 10+ years. Connect with Dricus on LinkedIn


Minwoo Kim

on 10 August 2015

Floating solar power system is a wonderful idea. And it’s very important to maintain effectively same direction and position on the water for floating solar plants. Because directional change of solar panels reduces electricity production. So floating solar plants also need the directional control mooring systems for their parked positions. Azimuth and position change of floating solar plants caused by wind, waves and external forces. Restoring Force Strengthened Mooring System for floating solar plants has been created in South Korea. This Mooring System generates Restoring Force immediately when floating solar plants are being rotated or moved on the water. In addition, you have to reduce vibration to install floating solar plants. Because, it can make micro-cracks to floating solar panels and the durability problem of floating solar plants. The risk of power loss in PV modules due to micro cracks is increasing. Vibrations caused by wind, waves and external forces. New Type Floating Body Stabilizer has been created in South Korea. The Floating Body Stabilizers generate drag force immediately when floating solar plants are being rolled, pitched and yawed on the water. Recently, Restoring Force Strengthened Mooring Systems and Floating Body Stabilizers have been used for floating solar plants in South Korea. You can see them in Ochang Dam natural reservoir, South Korea. I N I WORLD



on 13 August 2015

Thanks for commenting Minwoo Kim, good to see you here.


Maarten Romijn

on 20 August 2016

In hotter areas the efiiciency gain will be more than the 11% reported from Korea, also the PV module lifetime will be longer, thanks to the cooler operation above the water.


Judith Smadja

on 15 August 2015

Have a look at the offshore floating PV technology developped by 4CSOLAR, INC. Our prototype will be installed in Chile next September! http://www.4csolar.com



on 18 August 2015

Thanks for letting us know about 4Csolar's new floating PV technology. It looks different from any of the other floating PV system providers we mention in the article above. Please keep us updated on your latest developments. Would be glad to see how your prototype is launched and how it performs. All best!


Minwoo Kim

on 19 August 2015

Thanks for your good information.


Ingryd P

on 18 November 2015

I see a great potential in floating solar panels. I imagine fabricators have already considered using an anticorrosive coating for the metal frames. These coatings are designed to withstand highly corrosive environments and are use on the G&O market and subsea. Then, the other question would be to protect the PV itself.



on 18 November 2015

That's an interesting idea. So far it seems manufacturers are quite reluctant to provide warranty on solar modules installed on the water, especially at sea. Even though Salt Mist Corrosion certification provides a certain degree of assurance that the modules can withstand corrosion in the long run, there's of course few real data available from floating modules installed for long time 'in the field'. The right coatings in combination with certification testing can be the next step for reliable modules that can be used for floating pv systems.



on 14 December 2015

Hello! do you have the dimentions of the floating solar panels please? somenthing as a plan? thanks!



on 15 December 2015

You may want to get in touch with the specialized companies / organizations mentioned here such as Solaris Synergy, Ciel & Terre, Kyocera or the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)



on 21 January 2016

I had an idea for this over 25 years ago when I was a kid, now the world is catching up. Now I'm older, I can flesh out my idea with a few more details, but where do I start. Who shall I contact?



on 13 May 2016

Dear sir I have project in Egypt , I need to know more information about floating brackets for solar panels



on 14 July 2016

hi, I need more details about mathematical calculations for FPV



on 25 October 2016

I would like to focus the attention on other systems: in Italy we have developed the nrg island system from 2010. it works, it is functional and economic. if you would like to understand better our system feel free to contact us at www.nrgisland.com thanks


Bob A.

on 21 March 2017

We are siriously concedering a massive 100 MW floating solar park in Bangladesh. We have a choice of building it on dry land or on water, please suggest Pros and cons of floating solar park .thanks : Bob


Luciano Mule'Stagno

on 1 June 2017

We (University of Malta) have just concluded a project Solaqua - where we tested various designs in open sea. Our results were encouraging and successful. One of our prototypes is still at sea (since Dec 2014) . We are now planning Solaqua 2 - where we'd like to build a larger prototype and also deploy it at sea. We are focusing on power output and structural design. If you would like to know more or are interested in collaborating please contact me.


Rene Moerman

on 18 January 2018

Dear Luciano, can you please email me more info?



on 23 March 2018

Dear Luciano, can you please email me more info?

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