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Solar panel manufacturing process: From cell to module

During lay-up, solar cells are stringed and placed between sheets of EVA. The next step in the solar panel manufacturing process is lamination.

Solar panel manufacturing process

After having produced the solar cells and placed the electrical contacts between the cells, they are then wired and subsequently arrayed.

Solar panel lamination

Sealed into ethylene vinyl acetate, they are put into a frame that is sealed with silicon glue and covered with a mylar back on the backside and a glass plate on the frontside.

This is the so called lamination process and is an important step in the solar panel manufacturing process.

Finally, the structure is then supported with aluminum frames and ready is the PV module.

Following illustration depicts the whole process:


Solar Panel Manufacturing Process

Solar Panel Manufacturing Process


Power output check

Before the ready panel can be sold it must sustain a testing procedure to ensure its power output.

Flash test

Apart from a visual test of the panel, the testing included a flash test that measures the open-circuit voltage (VOC), voltage at maximum power point (VMP), short-circuit current (ISC), current at maximum power point (Imp), maximum power (Pm (W)) and the fill factor (FF).

The parameters of the modules are measured at standard test conditions (STC).

Standard testing conditions (STC)

STC specifies a temperature of 25°C and an irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with an air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) spectrum. These correspond to the irradiance and spectrum of sunlight incident on a clear day upon a sun-facing 37°-tilted surface with the sun at an angle of 41.81° above the horizon. This condition approximately represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with the surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun.

    Comment Section

    8 thoughts on “Solar panel manufacturing process: From cell to module

    By Uttam Napte on 11 January 2018

    Pls guide me for the manufacturering of solar panels

    By Shubham Babar on 24 January 2018

    I want to manufacture solar panels up to 50 watt in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Please help me in that.

    By guruprasad on 6 February 2018

    Car outer body to be manufactured by sunlight absorbing fiber glass (same shape) & laminated solar panels to be fixed inside the body. Outer fiber glass to be painted with sun light absorbing paint. Paint will absorb the sun light & transfer to fiber glass in the multiple ratio. Fiber glass pass to sunlight in multiple ratio to panel. by this method can I run my car by sun light. pls guide

    By Tascom on 3 April 2018

    I like the technology behind the solar panel manufacturing process, is it possible to establish such industry in east Africa.

    By Dumisani Shipalana on 11 May 2018

    I’m interested in manufacturing of solar panels and accessories in South Africa. I need support and partnership

    By Clince Babu on 14 September 2018

    Is it possible to integrate solar panel system into thin sheets, which can be roll or fold like plastic sheets. If it possible, we can easily use it for household purposes, stick it on our roofing metal sheets and small thin sheets can be paste on our mobile phones cover will produce millivolts for charging our cell. I’m interested in manufacturing such kinds of solar cells. Please give me a reply.

    By H s Bhopte on 14 January 2019

    I am interested in solor madules manufactureing, please help me and send the process along with In put and out put VoltageH S

    By P R Panigrahi on 18 June 2019

    I want to set up solar PV module manufacturing plant at Odisha. Pl. Help me for technical collaboration

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