LTO batteries: properties and usage
LTO batteries are lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) or li-titanate batteries, which is a class of battery that is used in a growing number of applications. They are high power batteries, so they are perfect for use in the fast charging stations.
Lithium-ion batteries and concept
The most popular technology of the battery sector currently is the lithium ion battery. Relative to other types of batteries, lithium ion batteries have better energy, power density and higher cycling ability. These qualities are extremely important in use in modern applications like electrical and hybrid vehicles and most importantly energy storage systems for the renewable energy applications.
The lithium ion batteries chemistry is the same across the different lithium-ion battery types; during discharge, Lithium-ions move to the positive cathode from the negative anode through the organic electrolyte. The anodes in all various technologies of lithium ion are all made from graphite. The differences are the cathode which contains changing cobalt, nickel or manganese concentrations. All various cathode types allow high lithium insertion and intercalation levels which result in large energy storage quantities.
LTO batteries technology and applications
LTO (Lithium tintate) was invented in the year 2008. Its anode material is Li4+aTi5O12, the cathode material is LibFePO4 and the carrier is Li+. They use it in different applications like UPS, electrical power trains, solar powered street lights, fast charge stations and forklifts. Other applications for LTO batteries include aerospace and military uses, and more importantly wind and solar energy storage and smart grids creation.
Li-titanate is used instead of the graphite in the anode of a common lithium-ion battery and the material is formed into a spinel structure. The cathode material is either LMO or NMC.
As mentioned, they use li-titanate batteries in electric vehicles, yet LTO batteries have lower energy density than other Li-ion battery types, which can be a disadvantage in efficiently powering vehicles. Still, the density of LTO batteries is higher than other non-Li-ion batteries.
Advantages and disadvantages of LTO batteries
The main advantages of the LTO batteries are:
- Excellent low temperature discharge characteristics
- Zero strain property, no formation of SEI film nor lithium plating when charging at low temperature or fast charging
- Long life time
- Fast charge capability and wide temperature range
- Among the safest types of Li-ion batteries
The main disadvantages of the LTO batteries are:
- High cost
- Lower inherent voltage or lower energy density