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Solar Panel Angle: how to calculate solar panel tilt angle?

Discover how to calculate the optimal solar panel angle for your solar system according to your location and the season. Two calculation methods explained.

How to calculate the Solar Panel Angle of your solar system?

The solar panel angle of your solar system is different depending on which part of the world you are.

Solar panels give the highest energy output when they are directly facing the sun.

The sun moves across the sky and will be low or high depending on the time of the day and the season. For that reason the ideal angle is never fixed.

To get the most sun reaching the panel throughout the day, you need to determine what direction the panels should face and calculate an optimal tilt angle. This will depend on:

  • Where you live
  • What time of the year you need the most solar energy
solar panel angle

Solar panel angle

Calculating the Optimal solar panel Angle

As a rule of thumb, solar panels should be more vertical during winter to gain most of the low winter sun, and more tilted during summer to maximize the output.

Here two simple methods for calculating approximate solar panel angle according to your latitude.

Calculation method one

The optimum tilt angle is calculated by adding 15 degrees to your latitude during winter, and subtracting 15 degrees from your latitude during summer.

For instance, if your latitude is 34°, the optimum tilt angle for your solar panels during winter will be 34 + 15 = 49°.

The summer optimum tilt angle on the other hand will be 34 – 15 = 19°.

Calculation method two

This is an improvement of the general method that gives better results. In this method, the optimum tilt angle for solar panels during winter is calculated by multiplying the latitude by 0.9 and then adding 29°. In the above case example of a latitude of 34°, the tilt angle will be (34 * 0.9) + 29 = 59.6°.

This angle is 10° steeper than in the general method but very effective at tapping the midday sun which is the hottest in the short winter days.

For summer, the tilt angle is calculated by multiplying the latitude by 0.9 and subtracting 23.5°. In the above case example, this angle would be (34 * 0.9) – 23.5 = 7.1°.

For optimum tilt angles during spring and fall, 2.5° is subtracted from the latitude.

Comment Section

30 thoughts on “Solar Panel Angle: how to calculate solar panel tilt angle?


By Harilal Bhatti on 24 May 2016

Very Easy to Understand


By Raman Patel on 26 December 2017

Let me know ,the solar panel angle for Bharuch (Gujarat) India


By Amarnath.P on 12 March 2018

let me know the solar panel angle for kerala ( Kozhikode )


By ishaq on 9 June 2019

my latitude is 32.7N 67.6E so what is my tilt angal


By Abrar Gul peshawar pakistan on 27 January 2020

plz whatsapp me on +92 333 9932015


By Maxim on 14 December 2016

What exactly period is identifited as winter and summer? From which to which month


By alex r. reonal on 5 October 2017

we have only twet seasono seasons in the philippines, the dry and wet season. dry season is summer which is approximately from april to june where wet season is te rest of the month of the year


By ramkripal on 30 December 2016

i m confused sir
my location latitude is 21.24

so my tilt angle is in winter

1st method
21.24+15= 36.24

n 2nd method
(21.24×0.9)+29 = 48.116
witch is right method???
😐😐😐


By alex r. reonal on 5 October 2017

my location is oas, albay with latitude of 13.1739deg longtitude 123.4159 deg


By DJ on 30 June 2018

the second one, as the above mentions the second formulation is more precise but depends on the season.


By tabaray alam badhusha on 14 November 2018

2nd method is right


By Vietky on 5 March 2017

Annual 0.76*latitute+3,1
Winter 0.89*latitute+24
Summer 0.92*latitute-24.3
Others 0.98*latitute-2,3


By opeyemi gbogi on 3 April 2017

please my latitude is 8.136
using the methods it gives me 36.3224 and -16.1776
is this correct


By hasen on 29 April 2017

My Lat is -20.2 and Long is 57.5
By using your method 1 gives me -20°+15° = -5° and -20° -15° = -35°
Is it correct?


By nisar samad on 3 July 2017

hi how u doing
my latitude is 26.1299
and longitude is 50.55
i need to know what is the best angle for yearly production ,i want a fixed structure not move able.
please guide me


By alex r. reonal on 5 October 2017

I’mplanning to use a permanent angle of inclination if facing southby multiplying the latitude by .812


By arun on 27 September 2017

which calcuate fix angle summer and winter who donot distrup the panel


By Kevin on 6 December 2017

For optimum tilt angles during spring and fall, 2.5° is subtracted from the latitude.
What formula do you subtract this from? winter or summer


By Vijay Ganesh on 13 December 2017

Dear Friends,
In case of permanent fixing Solar panels on the stand means,
what ll be the Angle…??


By C.SHUNMUGHASUNDARAM Shanlee on 8 August 2018

Excellent., Thank you for posting.
Neat and clear.


By Pieter on 1 September 2018

Easy and excellent! Thanks


By tabaray alam badhusha on 14 November 2018

In my site we are using the fixed tilt module mounting structure,by using inclinometer we get 13.5 degree tilt angle in all season(it’s fixed).In manual method how to calculate the tilt angle.(my site is kurnool-andhrapradesh-india)


By Alwielland Bello on 8 May 2019

What is your basis for both methods?


By ramu on 26 June 2019

how calculate ap latitude


By ATUL SHAH on 2 July 2019

Maximum output per kilo watt per day if south facing panel,8 hr continued sun light. Panel slop 20 degree


By Jon on 22 August 2019

“This angle is 10° steeper than in the general method but very effective at tapping the midday sun which is the hottest in the short winter days.”
Solar panels do not need heat they need the most direct exposure to sunlight.


By Eva on 25 September 2019

Why do you use 15? How was this number found?


By korosh on 9 May 2020

θ=(1/4 rad)/(sec⁡〖with respect to the spaceraft 〗 if) ω is the absolute angular velocity of
Th solar panels determine ω is the absolute angular velocity of the solar panels etermine ω.also find the acceleration of point a when θ= 30°
Ans. ω =1/ö I rad/sec²
Aa=0.313i-2.43j-01083k ft/ sec²?
θ=(1/4 rad)/(sec⁡〖with respect to the spaceraft 〗 if) ω is the absolute angular velocity of
Th solar panels determine ω is the absolute angular velocity of the solar panels etermine ω.also find the acceleration of point a when θ= 30°
Ans. ω =1/


By Black_whale on 12 July 2020

What about algeria


By Bruce Domer on 27 July 2020

I am at about 42 degrees North, at summer solstice, the sun appears to be north of the north facing outside wall of my house. As the earth nears noon, not sure exactly when it happens, the sun no long shines on the north wall. It didn’t make sense to place the solar panels the same as my latitude. These two methods make more sense though I have not looked into calculating the best angle. I have considered creating a system that will rotate the panel so that the panel face will be normal to the sun at all times, but haven’t come up with one. Did not spend much time looking into it. Does anyone have a fairly simple way to rotate solar panels to best use the sun’s light energy? Tilted at my latitude makes the face normal to the sunlight at only one time per year, summer solstice.

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