# Solar Panel Angle: how to calculate solar panel tilt angle?

Discover how to calculate the optimal solar panel angle for your solar system according to your location and the season. Two calculation methods explained.

## How to calculate the Solar Panel Angle of your solar system?

The solar panel angle of your solar system is different depending on which part of the world you are. Solar panels give the highest energy output when they are directly facing the sun. The sun moves across the sky and will be low or high depending on the time of the day and the season. For that reason the ideal angle is never fixed. To get the most sun reaching the panel throughout the day, you need to determine what direction the panels should face and calculate an optimal tilt angle. This will depend on:

• Where you live
• What time of the year you need the most solar energy

Solar panel angle

## Calculating the Optimal solar panel Angle

As a rule of thumb, solar panels should be more vertical during winter to gain most of the low winter sun, and more tilted during summer to maximize the output. Here are two simple methods for calculating approximate solar panel angle according to your latitude.

### Calculation method one

The optimum tilt angle is calculated by adding 15 degrees to your latitude during winter, and subtracting 15 degrees from your latitude during summer. For instance, if your latitude is 34°, the optimum tilt angle for your solar panels during winter will be 34 + 15 = 49°. The summer optimum tilt angle on the other hand will be 34 – 15 = 19°.

### Calculation method two

This is an improvement of the general method that gives better results. In this method, the optimum tilt angle for solar panels during winter is calculated by multiplying the latitude by 0.9 and then adding 29°. In the above case example of a latitude of 34°, the tilt angle will be (34 * 0.9) + 29 = 59.6°. This angle is 10° steeper than in the general method but very effective at tapping the midday sun which is the hottest in the short winter days. For summer, the tilt angle is calculated by multiplying the latitude by 0.9 and subtracting 23.5°. In the above case example, this angle would be (34 * 0.9) – 23.5 = 7.1°. For optimum tilt angles during spring and fall, 2.5° is subtracted from the latitude.

By

Bruce Domer

on 27 Jul 2020

I am at about 42 degrees North, at summer solstice, the sun appears to be north of the north facing outside wall of my house. As the earth nears noon, not sure exactly when it happens, the sun no long shines on the north wall. It didn't make sense to place the solar panels the same as my latitude. These two methods make more sense though I have not looked into calculating the best angle. I have considered creating a system that will rotate the panel so that the panel face will be normal to the sun at all times, but haven't come up with one. Did not spend much time looking into it. Does anyone have a fairly simple way to rotate solar panels to best use the sun's light energy? Tilted at my latitude makes the face normal to the sunlight at only one time per year, summer solstice.

By

Brian Shingleton

on 08 Oct 2020

Hi Bruce. I am currently developing a simpler than turntable to do exactly this. I was inspired by always having to move my portable panel to face the sun when camping using the panel to keep the leisure battery charged. I have built prototypes successfully and now embarking on the final production product. Watch this space! Brian

By

Brett

on 08 Oct 2020

By

david aponte

on 15 Oct 2020

I faced the same problem, what I made for improve efficiency is: 1. Installing an actuator tied to a servomotor and PLC with a radiaton sensor, which reads the instant radiation and corrects the lenght to angle of the panel to a maximum value with a PID cheap control ( arduino)

By

ras

on 16 Nov 2020

I made a frame from bed rails ( angle iron type ) I placed a steel tek 1 1/4\" 90 swivel socket about 12\" from top 36\" wide by 64\" long and put a 7\' 1 1/4 pipe in ground and mounted the frame mine is for six panels but you could do 4 the swivel has a lock nut for rotation but you have to put a collar for bottom adjustment arms let me know and I can send pictures

By

shaharyar

on 25 Dec 2020

Now in modern world solar tracker are using for solving this type of issue because they having a feature to move and track a sun ray

By

Felix

on 30 Apr 2021

Sun tracker is your ultimate solution. You don\'t have to be there to adjust all the time..

By

Mikael Palmkvist

on 31 Dec 2021

You should make it simpler, at given latitude a sphere with given angel and it rotate 15 degrees per hours and that will follow the sun. the tilt angel is dependent of time of years. You have to handle sunrise and sunset when the sun is below horisen also. If you have a stative where your solcell are installed you can rotate it very well.

By

Black_whale

on 12 Jul 2020

By

korosh

on 09 May 2020

θ=(1/4 rad)/(sec⁡〖with respect to the spaceraft 〗 if) ω is the absolute angular velocity of Th solar panels determine ω is the absolute angular velocity of the solar panels etermine ω.also find the acceleration of point a when θ= 30° Ans. ω =1/ö I rad/sec² Aa=0.313i-2.43j-01083k ft/ sec²? θ=(1/4 rad)/(sec⁡〖with respect to the spaceraft 〗 if) ω is the absolute angular velocity of Th solar panels determine ω is the absolute angular velocity of the solar panels etermine ω.also find the acceleration of point a when θ= 30° Ans. ω =1/

By

Eva

on 25 Sep 2019

By

Dave S

on 20 Apr 2022

360° (Earth travels around the Sun) ÷ 24hrs (in a day) = 15° in 1hr (the Sun moves 15° in an hour)

By

Jon

on 22 Aug 2019

"This angle is 10° steeper than in the general method but very effective at tapping the midday sun which is the hottest in the short winter days." Solar panels do not need heat they need the most direct exposure to sunlight.

By

ATUL SHAH

on 02 Jul 2019

Maximum output per kilo watt per day if south facing panel,8 hr continued sun light. Panel slop 20 degree

By

ramu

on 26 Jun 2019

how calculate ap latitude

By

Alwielland Bello

on 08 May 2019

What is your basis for both methods?

By

on 14 Nov 2018

In my site we are using the fixed tilt module mounting structure,by using inclinometer we get 13.5 degree tilt angle in all season(it's fixed).In manual method how to calculate the tilt angle.(my site is kurnool-andhrapradesh-india)

By

Pieter

on 01 Sep 2018

Easy and excellent! Thanks

By

C.SHUNMUGHASUNDARAM Shanlee

on 08 Aug 2018

Excellent., Thank you for posting. Neat and clear.

By

Vijay Ganesh

on 13 Dec 2017

Dear Friends, In case of permanent fixing Solar panels on the stand means, what ll be the Angle...??

By

Kevin

on 06 Dec 2017

For optimum tilt angles during spring and fall, 2.5° is subtracted from the latitude. What formula do you subtract this from? winter or summer

By

arun

on 27 Sep 2017

which calcuate fix angle summer and winter who donot distrup the panel

By

on 03 Jul 2017

hi how u doing my latitude is 26.1299 and longitude is 50.55 i need to know what is the best angle for yearly production ,i want a fixed structure not move able. please guide me

By

alex r. reonal

on 05 Oct 2017

I'mplanning to use a permanent angle of inclination if facing southby multiplying the latitude by .812

By

hasen

on 29 Apr 2017

My Lat is -20.2 and Long is 57.5 By using your method 1 gives me -20°+15° = -5° and -20° -15° = -35° Is it correct?

By

opeyemi gbogi

on 03 Apr 2017

please my latitude is 8.136 using the methods it gives me 36.3224 and -16.1776 is this correct

By

Vietky

on 05 Mar 2017

Annual 0.76*latitute+3,1 Winter 0.89*latitute+24 Summer 0.92*latitute-24.3 Others 0.98*latitute-2,3

By

ramkripal

on 30 Dec 2016

i m confused sir my location latitude is 21.24so my tilt angle is in winter1st method 21.24+15= 36.24n 2nd method (21.24×0.9)+29 = 48.116 witch is right method??? 😐😐😐

By

on 14 Nov 2018

2nd method is right

By

DJ

on 30 Jun 2018

the second one, as the above mentions the second formulation is more precise but depends on the season.

By

alex r. reonal

on 05 Oct 2017

my location is oas, albay with latitude of 13.1739deg longtitude 123.4159 deg

By

Maxim

on 14 Dec 2016

What exactly period is identifited as winter and summer? From which to which month

By

alex r. reonal

on 05 Oct 2017

we have only twet seasono seasons in the philippines, the dry and wet season. dry season is summer which is approximately from april to june where wet season is te rest of the month of the year

By

Harilal Bhatti

on 24 May 2016

Very Easy to Understand

By

ishaq

on 09 Jun 2019

my latitude is 32.7N 67.6E so what is my tilt angal

By

Amarnath.P

on 12 Mar 2018

let me know the solar panel angle for kerala ( Kozhikode )

By

FIROSUDHEEN

on 13 Jul 2021

11.25 * 0.9 +29 for winter and 11.25 * 0.9 - 29 for summer

By

Raman Patel

on 26 Dec 2017

Let me know ,the solar panel angle for Bharuch (Gujarat) India

By

Ken A.

on 09 Nov 2020

Rather than due south, I have placed my two arrays off by 15 degrees, so that one is pivoted slightly to the SE and one slightly to the SW, to give me a longer period of charging my off-grid system. Should I adjust the above calculation for tilt of the two arrays?

By

on 06 Mar 2021

Simple method is tilt = 90 - Latitude

By

Launcelyn

on 28 Mar 2021

I\'m planning a 12kW array with battery storage, but we already have a 4kW grid tied array (at 22deg) so I plan to set the panels at the optimum angle for winter, say 60-65deg (as we\'re at lat.52), less a bit to allow autumn and spring to be a bit more productive. With about 36-48 kWh storage I\'m hoping to cover about 10MWh of our total annual consumption of 25-30 MWh. Many thanks for the article giving the various options.

By

Tigabu Mekonnen Belay

on 06 Oct 2021

It is a good solution, as others said we can use solar tracking but it is expensive, more for the rural areas it is difficult to use solar tricking, instead of using the optimum annual, seasonal, or monthly tilt angle as the best solution, by making the support adjustable.

By

Kevin

on 13 Oct 2021

Hi, Thanks for the wonderful formulas, they are very helpful. Only question now is, how do I change the angle of my house's roof every 6 months?

By

Dr Abbas Ali

on 02 Nov 2021

Then what to do? Either simple method or calculation method be used? If you are free or when you are free, plz send your answer to me and oblige. Thanks

By

Mike a2zidx.com

on 16 Nov 2021

I thought that that this would help anyone planning to use a fixed angle, If you are looking to get the maximum output in winter then using an angle close to the winter angle for your location will probably close to your best option. While this will not give you the highest output during summer it will give you a more even output throughout the year. If you want to do the calculations you need to take into account the reduced tangential area and change in the suns intensity.

By

on 23 Jan 2022

Mine is A: 28° 12’ 19’’ N 81° 41’ 8 ‘’E Pls suggest the optimum tilt angle for fixed mounting ground based panels.

By

David

on 20 Oct 2022

What are the change dates when going between seasons?

By

Asa Ceait

on 15 Jan 2023

As the seasons change gradually, optimum would be daily - not likely though. Weekly more possible but unlikely, too. Monthly would be more of an option for more ambitious people - otherwise I would use the Winter Solstice and Summer Solstice

By

Aca Ceait

on 15 Jan 2023

My Latitude 47° 40' 24" N Winter 71.66 degrees (Dec 21) Solstice between 45.41 degrees (March 21) Summer 19.16 degrees (June 21) Solstice between 45.41 degrees (Sept 21)

By

Chris

on 22 Jun 2023

Winter solstice is the mid point of winter not the beginning so ideally you should adjust the panels around Oct 8th to the winter position, then move to Spring position 3 months later and so on.

By

James Dow

on 20 Jul 2023

In the very near future, I will be introducing the world’s only correctable (compensated for residual [after calibration] azimuth deviation errors) smartphone compass app. With the introduction of my new smartphone (iPhone & Android) app, users will be a

By

Wilna Vosloo

on 24 Jul 2023

I am at -29 latitude in the southern hemisphere (South Africa). My panels is fronting East-West. How do I work out the best angle?

By

Dhruva Paudel

on 03 Apr 2024

My latitude is 9 Deg. let me know the angle for summer and winter

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