LFP battery

LFP batteries: properties and usage

LFP batteries stands for Lithium iron phosphate(LiFePO4) batteries, which is known as li-phosphate batteries as well. They use phosphate as cathode material. In addition, they benefit from the low resistance properties that enhance their thermal stability and safety.  

Lithium-ion batteries and concept

The most popular technology of the battery sector currently is of the lithium ion battery. Relative to other types of batteries, lithium ion batteries have better energy, power density and higher cycling ability. These qualities are extremely important in the use in modern applications like electrical and hybrid vehicles and most importantly energy storage systems as in renewable energy applications. The lithium ion batteries chemistry is the same across the different lithium-ion battery types; during discharge, Lithium-ions move to the positive cathode from the negative anode through the organic electrolyte. The anodes in all various technologies of lithium ion are all made from graphite. The differences are the cathode which contains changing cobalt, nickel or manganese concentrations. All various cathode types allow high lithium insertion and intercalation levels which result in large energy storage quantities.  

LFP batteries technology and applications

LFP (Lithium iron phosphate) was invented in the year 1996. Its anode material is LiaC6, the cathode material is LibFePO4 and the carrier is Li+.  They use LFP batteries in different applications like electric cars, electric buses and electric trucks. The LFP is ideal for use in electric trucks or buses – as volume or weight isn’t really a restriction as is in cars- because the battery is less energy dense yet cheaper to manufacture than other Li-ion batteries types. In addition, they use LFP batteries in other applications like electric motorcycles which need a longer life cycle and increased safety. LFP provides good electrochemical performance with lower resistance. This is enabled by the nano scale phosphate cathode material. The main benefits are long cycle life, higher current rating and thermal stability which means extra safetyLFP batteries 

Advantages and disadvantages of LFP batteries

 

The main advantages of the LFP batteries are:

  • Durability
  • Long lifecycle
  • Low cost
  • Excellent safety 

The main disadvantages of the LFP batteries are:

  • More tolerant to conditions of full charge and is less stressed at higher voltage for a long time.
  • lower nominal voltage which reduces the specific energy
  • Higher self discharge than other types  Li-ion batteries, which causes balancing issues with aging

 

Kenneth Evans
By

Kenneth Evans

on 24 Apr 2021

The first disadvantage listed sounds more like an advantage

joel menkes
By

joel menkes

on 20 Oct 2021

I thought the same. Gonna look it up to get some idea of just what is involved.

joel menkes
By

joel menkes

on 20 Oct 2021

"June 15, 2017 The advantage of Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)Lifepo4 offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance. This is made possible with nano-scale phosphate cathode material. The key benefits are high current rating and long cycle life, besides good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance if abused.Li-phosphate is more tolerant to full charge conditions and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems if kept at high voltage for a prolonged time. As a trade-off, its lower nominal voltage of 3.2V/cell reduces the specific energy below that of cobalt-blended lithium-ion. With most batteries, cold temperature reduces performance and elevated storage temperature shortens the service life, and Li-phosphate is no exception. Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging. This can be mitigated by buying high quality cells and/or using sophisticated control electronics, both of which increase the cost of the pack.Li-phosphate is often used to replace the lead acid starter battery. With four Li-phosphate cells in series, each cell tops at 3.60V, which is the correct full-charge voltage. At this point, the charge should be disconnected but the topping charge continues while driving. Li-phosphate is tolerant to some overcharge; however, keeping the voltage at 14.40V for a prolonged time, as most vehicles do on a long drive, could stress Li-phosphate. Cold temperature operation starting could also be an issue with Li-phosphate as a starter battery."https://www.yiyen.com/lithium-iron-phosphate-lifepo4/

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