Hybrid Solar Cells have raised lots of attention because of the synergistic properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors that take advantage of their lightweight, flexible, and inexpensive properties. The Inorganic SNMs (semiconductor nanomaterials) are dispersed in the organic polymer matrix.
The nanomaterials that are used in hybrid solar cells have lower optical absorption in comparison with the conducting polymers and has the ability to absorb a much bigger portion of the solar spectrum.
Hybrid Solar cells concept
Hybrid solar cells take advantage of both the organic and inorganic semiconductors. The Hybrid photovoltaics contain organic materials that entail conjugated polymers which absorb light as the donor and transport holes. Inorganic materials in the hybrid cells act as the acceptor and the electron transporter in the structure.
Solar PV cells are devices which convert solar energy into electrical energy using the photovoltaic effect. The solar cell’s electrons absorb photon energy in sunlight which leads to their excitation from the valence band to the conduction band. This leads to generation of a hole-electron pair that is separated by a potential barrier, and leads to induction of current. The organic solar cells use in their active layers organic materials. The main kinds of organic photovoltaic devices currently researched are molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic photovoltaics.
In the hybrid solar cells, the photoactive layer is formed by mixing an organic material with a high electron transport material. The two materials are combined together in a heterojunction-type photoactive layer, which can have a higher efficiency of power conversion than a single material. One of the materials acts as the exciton donor and photon absorber while the other material helps exciton dissociation at the junction. The charge is transferred then separated after delocalizing the exciton created in the donor on a donor acceptor complex.
Interfaces and structures of hybrid solar cells
The efficiency of the hybrid solar cells can be improved by controlling the interface of inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells. The increased efficiency can be obtained by increasing the interfacial surface area between the both organic and the inorganic material so as to facilitate charge separation and with controlling the nanoscale lengths and periodicity of the structures so as to allow the charges to separate and move toward the suitable electrode without recombining. There are three main nanoscale structures that are used; mesoporous inorganic films infused with electron donating organic, nanowire structures and alternating inorganic-organic lamellar structures.